Page 1 of This PDF file contains most of the text of the Web exhibit “Einstein – Image and Impact” at One story Einstein liked to tell about his childhood was of a "wonder" he This theory was further developed by the Indian physicist S.N.. Bose. . language for a description of the overall structure of the universe. Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist .. Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement (PDF). . The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and. The German-born American physicist (one who studies matter and energy and the relationships between them) Albert Einstein revolutionized the science of.
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Albert Einstein (14 March – 18 April ) was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of. ALBERT EINSTEIN. March 14, —April 18, BY JOHN ARCHIBALD WHEELER*. ALBERT EINSTEIN was born in Ulm, Germany on March. -**- Look inside this book. Albert Einstein (Hindi) by [VINOD KUMAR MISHRA] . language eBooks. Click here to learn more about reading Indian language eBooks.
He spent a little time in Europe, including in Britain in the early s. Finally, he left Europe forever—never to return—in That suited him very well. He lived in Princeton right up to his death in As a Jew, he was very interested in the founding of Israel and took an active role in that. He was a patent clerk in Bern and worked in the patent office for a number of years from Probably his most productive years are those years when he was a patent clerk.
Having said that, he came up with general relativity when he was a professor of physics in Berlin. Also, at the patent office, although he was not known in the academic world, he had some contact with academic physicists like Max Planck who was a key supporter of relativity. But we should remember that he was always involved with those two worlds. Are there any clues as to where his revelations came from?
Did his unconventional background play a part in that? Like many geniuses, he was not particularly successful in his university training. He attended a famous institution—in Zurich—but was always rebelling against his academic education, constantly reading the latest research on his own.
He was not working with other people at all. He was not very successful in his relationships with his university lecturers.
He was a rebel and, because he was so passionate about physics, his best ideas really came from his own reading and thinking. One of the most famous ones concerns chasing a light ray. When he was 16 or 17, he imagined whether you could catch up with a light ray and what that would mean.
Yes, to begin with, it did. He had friends who he tried his ideas out on and often they disagreed—quite violently in some cases—and that improved his thinking. At one point, he did have a collaborator who was a mathematician and they published some work on general relativity together.
Afterwards, he always published alone. The Standard of Greatness by John Rigden from Can you tell us a bit about that? Einstein published five papers that year. All of them are considered of great value. The paper that Einstein regarded as the most revolutionary of his work in was actually about quantum theory. There was another paper about Brownian motion. He showed that the phenomenon of Brownian motion—which had been known for almost years—was actually due to atoms bombarding particles.
This was considered proof of the atomic theory of matter by his fellow physicists — the first time that atoms had really been proved to exist. Then, the last of the five papers concerned probably the most famous equation in science: This came out of his first paper on relativity and was published at the end of This is the principle that energy and mass are two aspects of the same thing.
Yes, and c is the speed of light. Fission was not discovered until later — just before the Second World War, in fact. Can you talk us through that theory? John Rigden puts it quite well in his book. This theory of relativity led to the concept of space-time which is a key thought in general relativity. General relativity was much more comprehensive, it included gravitation and acceleration. General relativity is what we often see illustrated with a rubber sheet with marbles on it distorting the sheet.
Is that right? The experimental proof of general relativity came only later. Probably the most famous aspect of the experimental proof is the bending of a light-ray by the gravitational field of the sun.
The light emitted by distant stars was observed to be bent by the gravitational field of the sun in during an astronomical expedition led by Sir Arthur Eddington, a British astronomer. After that expedition, physicists started to take general relativity much more seriously. There were other experimental proofs as well, but that was the beginning of the idea that general relativity was correct. Before that, it was unproven and Einstein asked astronomers to go looking for it.
ALBERT EINSTEIN - HINDI - FOUNDER OF THEORY OF RELATIVITY
Astronomers were able to back up his theory with observations. So, after we had the proof of general relativity, how was science different? How did the universe look different? What are the implications of that for the way we see the world now?
E=mc2: Einstein's equation that gave birth to the atom bomb
The whole idea of the Big Bang has been explained, to a great extent, in terms of general relativity. This came much later than Einstein of course — he was dead by then. General relativity also explains the existence of black holes. The whole structure of space and time which Newton imagined, an absolute coordinate system, has been abandoned in favour of a curved space-time formulation.
His achievements in so many papers in such a short period of time seems almost superhuman. But he was just human, right?
Do we risk exaggerating his genius sometimes? He was certainly very human and had many failings as well as an extraordinary scientific imagination. There were a few letters to his wife, and he published a little bit. There is this feeling that it came out of the blue. What we do know is what he published in and that he was fascinated by contradictions in physics.
From that, he concluded that light always moves at a constant speed — independent of the coordinate system you were using to measure it with. Another contradiction that fascinated him was to do with magnetism and electric charge. He imagined that if you had a stationary charge observed by a stationary observer, there would be no magnetic field which could be observed with a compass. So which was true? And he did resolve it, with his theory of relativity. Yes, he did. It was fruitful for his imagination.
He liked contradictions and found them stimulating. With practically no mathematics, he manages to show how various contradictions were perceived by Einstein and then used to create these various papers during that year. Rigden is very good at explaining it in clear language with historical anecdotes nicely integrated into the text. This is a collection of correspondence between Einstein and his friend, the German physicist, Max Born.
What makes the book unique is that the author is German, when most biographers come from the English-speaking world.
To have a German writing on Einstein is particularly interesting. He was born in Germany in and grew up there until he was 16 when he went to join his parents in Italy. He was unhappy with the German educational system: He was not a very willing student in an authoritarian education system. In fact, his whole life was a battle against authority in different forms.
He kept Swiss nationality throughout his life, until he went to the United States and became an American citizen when he was quite old, in So, he is not German by nationality, though he was born there.
He stayed in Germany until , when the Nazis came to power, and he had to get out. He spent a little time in Europe, including in Britain in the early s. Finally, he left Europe forever—never to return—in Retrieved 7 March Hamilton Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. World Scientific.
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Albert Einstein Biography
Princeton University Press, p. The Expanded Quotable Einstein. His Life and Universe. Simon and Schuster, p. Princeton NJ: Letter to M. Berkowitz, 25 October Einstein Archive 59— A Merciful End. Oxford University Press, p.
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Life and Thought. Einstein's refrigerator Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine. Retrieved on 12 November He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled. Alok, Jha 21 September The Guardian.
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Faber and Faber. Hoffmann, Banesh Creator and Rebel'. Hart-Davis, MacGibbon. Isaacson, Walter Translated by Shelley Frisch. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Pais, Abraham Subtle is the Lord: The science and the life of Albert Einstein.
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Penrose, Roger The Road to Reality. Vintage Books.
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Weinstein, G. General Relativity Conflict and Rivalries: Einstein's Polemics with Physicists. Newcastle upon Tyne UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Brian, Denis A Life. John Wiley. Moring, Gary The complete idiot's guide to understanding Einstein 1st ed. Indianapolis IN: Alpha books Macmillan.He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University , and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House.
He attended a famous institution—in Zurich—but was always rebelling against his academic education, constantly reading the latest research on his own. A Photographer's Story". Einstein Lived Here.
Arcadia Publishing. A Life.
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